Finally after many years of visiting the monuments, graves and locations where the Scottish Women’s Hospitals worked in Serbia, I got the opportunity to visit Bajina Basta and the grave of Evelina Haverfield. The journey from Valjevo to Bajina Basta is a memorable one. The drive over the mountain roads is breathtaking, deep gorges on what seems every bend, mountain ranges for as far as the eye can see. Dense forest carpets the mountain faces and tiny villages peer out from the trees. Home to man, wolves and bears, it’s as if mother nature herself got down on one knee and kissed the land.
Evelina’s resting place is close to the majestic river Drina. Its a remarkable landscape for a remarkable lady.
Evelina, was born on the 9th of August 1867 at Inverlochy Castle, Fort William, deep in the heart of the Scottish Highlands. Daughter to William Frederick Scarlett, 3rd Baron Abinger and mother Helen. Born into a life of privilege and wealth, Evelina schooled in London and Germany, but was equally at home in her highland estate. Evelina had two marriages. And during her second marriage she traveled to South Africa to support her husband in the second Boer war. Clearly this was an insight into Evelina’s future plans as she bloomed in the theatre of war and adversity. In the early 1900’s she dabbled in politics, firstly joining a moderate women’s suffrage movement before electing to support the militant suffragettes led by Emmeline Pankhurst. In 1909 she was arrested whilst trying to enter the House of Commons. In 1910 she was charged with assaulting a policeman after hitting him in the mouth. She said at that time “It was not hard enough, next time I will bring a revolver.” Again in 1910 Evelina was on the front line protesting, and this time was sent to prison for two weeks. In 1911 she met Vera Holme, Vera also joined the SWH and was her life partner until Evelina’s death. In 1915 Evelina joined the SWH as administrator in Serbia. She had a prickly relationship with some of the staff and moved from unit to unit. Dr Elsie Inglis was however a champion of Evelina in the early days. In 1916 she became a POW at Krusevac. Days before she was to be repatriated she went missing, the guards found her hiding in a peasants cottage. Serbia by this time was her cause. In August of 1916 she joined Elsie Inglis again, this unit was dispatched to the Russian front at the request of the Serbian government to provide field hospitals for two Serb division who had until their capture by the Russian been constricted by the Austrian/Hungarian forces. In March 1917 she left the unit and went on to form the Evelina Haverfield’s and Flora Sandes’ Fund for Promoting Comforts for Serbian Soldiers and Prisoners. After the armistice ,along with Vera Holme and a small number of co workers from the SWH days, she returned to Serbia as commissioner of the Serbian Red Cross Society in Great Britain. On her own initiative she began to look for a suitable location for Serbian orphans. For a few months they cared for the children at Uzice before locating to Bajina Basta. She used all her own money and devoted all her time to providing care for those starving and homeless children. She managed to place about 100 orphans in a house with a café, which still stands today. After traveling into the snow to help translate for an American Doctor, Evelina fell sick with pneumonia. On Mar 21 1920 she died. Her last words were ‘What will become of the children?’
Evelina Haverfield was the recipient of the highest Serbian award: the Order of the White Eagle and I am glad to report her headstone and grave are kept in immaculate condition to this day.
Tucked among the fruit trees that grow on the slopes of the surrounding hillsides and over looked by Kosmaj mountain is Mladenovac. The town is situated around 30 miles from Belgrade. Home to around 25,000 inhabitants, Mladenovac is an industrial hub with many different factories.
Dr Elsie Inglis, who arrived in Serbia in May of 1915 instructed that a field hospital be located at Mladenovac . The typhus epidemic that had battered Serbia in February and had to some degree diminished was by the end of April and May back with a vengeance. Hundreds of cases were being reported at Mladenovac and Elsie dispatched a unit under the command of Dr Beatrice MacGregor. With Mladenovac being the hub of Transport for the Serbian army, Elsie and here units understood the importance of their work and containing any infectious diseases. The hospital was under canvas and located on the hillside just outside the town. By July there were no more cases of typhus or wounded soldiers, so the unit opened a dispensary for the women and children. Such was the need for this initiative that in the first two weeks 700 visits were made. On the 8th of October, Belgrade fell to the Germans and Austrians. On the 12th the unit evacuated to Kragujevac, they were again in the thick of it, working with nearly 400 cases of wounded men. By the end of October , and with the Bulgarians also declaring war on Serbia, the unit was pushed back again. Many of the Mladenovac unit went on the Serbian retreat including Dr Beatrice Macgregor. Sadly Caroline Toughill, a nurse from Edinburgh perished in the mountains along the thousands of Serbian men,women and children.
Mladenovac will be perhaps the key destination when we visit with the relatives. The monument and fountain in the town was built in 1915 by the Serbian soldiers. Its dedicated to the work of Elsie Inglis and the SWH. Elsie attended the opening ceremony and was left in awe of the people who knew her at that time as the “mother of the nation” Elsie wrote home “these beloved Serbians-you cannot help but love them”. A ceremony has been held at Mladenovac for decades and next being the centenary of her death will be a large scale and very moving occasion. The 15th of September 2017 will be a very special event.
On Saturday 12th November Alan Cumming brought the story of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals to Selkirk in the Scottish Borders.
As an ex-resident of the nearby village of Ettrickbridge, Alan was warmly welcomed back to the town, his talk very much a highlight of Saturday’s event. The free event, which took place in Selkirk Parish Church Hall, was organised by the Saving and Sharing Border Stories of WWI project.
The two year project, run jointly by the Scottish Borders Museums, Archives and Library Services aims to provide a unique and lasting commemorative record of the First World War and its legacy for the Borders. It is being funded the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Armed Forces Covenant.
Throughout the day volunteers scanned and photographed a range of WWI letters, diaries, photographs and more brought along and shared by family members. These will form a digital record, ensuring the contribution of Borderers to WWI is not forgotten.
Over one hundred members of the community attended the event throughout the day. For most who heard Alan’s presentation the subject was previously unknown and all appreciated hearing about the Borders’ women involved. An interesting Q & A session followed the talk and feedback suggested those present were inspired by the story of Dr Elsie Inglis and the many other brave women. We were also delighted to have Paul Murton presenter/broadcaster, film-maker and historian in the audience.
Lazarevac is a town and municipality located in Serbia around 50 miles to the south of Belgrade with a population of 25,526. Its name stems from the name of medieval Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic.
The Scottish Women’s Hospital hospital at Lazarevac, was in the summer of 1915, commandeered by Elsie Inglis. Although the summer of 1915 was a relatively quiet spell, Elsie wanted to be ready to combat any further typhus epidemics that would almost certainly hit Serbia in the coming winter. Lazarevac therefore, was to set up as a blocking hospital. Under the command of Dr Hollway, the SWH took over an existing hospital in the town. Evelina Haverfield would take over the running of the hospital. The unit took over the hospital after the battle of Kolubara. The village as it was then, was showered in bullet marks and many of the buildings had been shelled. A school that over looked the village was converted into a fever hospital. Other buildings were made into medical,surgical and convalescent wards. As patients began to flock to the hospital, two more hospitals were opened. The unit eventually took over the laundry for all ten of hospitals in the area. The staff were located in one of the few two- storey houses while others camped in tents on the hill. On October the 19th, ten days after Belgrade fell, the hospital was ordered to evacuate. In fact they had under ten hours to shift the entire hospital. The patients and hospital were taken to Arandelovac and boarded the trains to head south to Mladenovac. Over the next few months some of the women would become POW’s at Kurushvac, while others would join the the Serbian retreat.
Lavarevac, is another Serbian town that plans to be involved in next years centenary plans. The town is beautiful and full of charm. We were invited to the mayors office and, after a successful meeting, I was asked to lay a wreath at the towns hospital.
A plaque dedicated to Elsie Inglis and the SWH is located at the hospitals entrance. I was surprised by the large turn out of local people and also by the large presence of the media. I am genuinely, as always, astounded with the way Serbs view me.
We were shown around the church of St. Demetrius, built in the memory of Serbian and Austro-Hungarian army soldiers that were killed at the Battle of Kolubara. Its impossible not to feel overwhelmed by the sheer scale of loss. Finally we were treated to a tour of the local library. I will over the next few months furnish the library with documents, photos and details of the SWH in Lazarevac in order for them to display the findings as an exhibition.
TV news clip, maybe not my finest moment! https://vimeo.com/190601865
Valjevo, is one of the city’s in Serbia that will have a fountain built and hold an exhibition for next years commemoration.
Valjevo is located 80 miles south of Belgrade and during the winter of 1915 went through its own personal hell. Thousands of its citizens and thousands of soldiers had perished in the typhus epidemic that destroyed huge parts of Serbia and in particular Valjevo. The city had itself been turned into one large field hospital and many, many men lay wounded and untreated due to the deaths of the Serb Doctors and nurses. Dr Elsie Inglis ensured the city received a Scottish Women’s Hospitals unit to firstly aid with the suffering and secondly to provide a blocking hospital for the winter to come. Under the command of Dr Alice Hutchinson the unit worked around the clock, nursing the wounded soldiers and helping to contain the typhus epidemic. The unit that served in Valjevo are fondly remembered. And I was delighted to do an interview for the local TV channel.
Velibor Vidic has done a vast amount of research and has already held an impressive exhibition in the city’s hospital. I have known Velibor for a few years now, firstly when he contributed to the film “The Women That Went To War” and last year when he invited me to Valjevo’s international conference. He is a wonderful ambassador for his country and a dear friend.
Last March the British Residence in Belgrade was fittingly named after Dr Elsie Inglis by Ambassador Keefe.
Ambassador Keefe said that day, “Elsie Inglis was one of the first women in Scotland who had finished high education and was a pioneer of medicine. She fought energetically against prejudice, for social and political emancipation of women in Britain. She was also a tireless volunteer, courageous organiser of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals and a dedicated humanitarian. Unfortunately Elsie Inglis didn’t live long enough to see the triumph of some of her ideas, but she has had a tremendous influence on social trends in our country. In Scotland she became a doctor, in Serbia she became a saint.”
Needless to say, that when i received an invitation to attend Elsie Inglis house and meet with Ambassador Keefe i was delighted. The plaque is mounted at the front door and the corridor is decorated with photos, paintings and letters of not just Elsie but of various women doctors that served in Serbia during WW1. Its impressive and is a very fitting tribute to an incredible lady. Ambassador Keefe was most helpful and completely supportive of the plans to bring Elsie’s relatives over to Serbia next September. We agreed that a visit to Elsie Inglis House during that time would be ideal.