A journey through the past. Dr Mary Ann Blair and the Corsica unit.

In August of 1915, the Scottish Women’s Hospitals sent a unit under the leadership of Dr Mary Blair. They sailed for Serbia to support Dr Alice Hutchison’s unit in Valjevo, Serbia.  Their arrival in Salonika in October coincided with  the desperate  news that all the hospital units working in Serbia were to be evacuated.  Over the next few months Serbia, who had fought tooth and nail against the invading forces since 1914  were now isolated, out-gunned and exhausted.  She stood alone and when the huge fresh fighting force of Germans and Austrians were joined by the Bulgarians, Serbia was forced onto the back foot and The Great Serbian retreat began.  This was not just a retreating army but a whole nation propelled into exile. A journey for most on foot, in the depth of a freezing winter.  A journey of hundreds of miles into Kosovo and over the Albanian mountains and down to the Adriatic sea.  A catastrophe for Serbia as tens of thousands of men, women and children would lose their lives to the cold, starvation and exhaustion.

Dr Blair’s unit searched for a site to avoid being sent home. With a large SWH already functioning in Salonika this looked a possibility, but when the news came in December that they were to run a Serb refugee hospital on the island of Corsica Dr Blair and her sixteen women were thrilled.  On Christmas day 1915 the Corsican unit, also known as the Manchester and District unit, began.  And as 1915 came to a close hundreds of Serbian  refugees poured in on a daily basis. Dr Blair remarked that ” they looked so desolate and forlorn though most put a brave face on it, that we all felt inclined to weep”.

The main hospital was located in Ajaccio in a two storeyed building of Villa Miot.  As the work load grew so did the hospital and tents were pitched in the gardens for open air treatments.  A fever hospital was situated a few miles from the General hospital in Lazaet, a historic building that stood high, over looking the gulf.  By this time nearly 3000 refugees and a few decimated regiments had arrived from Serbia.   Also a band of a few hundred Serbian boys arrived for a few months recuperation. Thirty thousand boys set off on the Serbian retreat. Such were the conditions and horrors of that journey, that only 7000 made it to safety.   Nearly 300 of these lads, after they were rested on the island, were sent on to schools in UK and France.   Out- patients hospitals were opened in Chiavari some 20 miles from Ajaccio and St Antoine.   The value of the work is indubitable and many a young life benefited from the units endeavours.  79 babies were born during the hospitals tenure, a reminder that life even in the darkest of times prevails.   The hospital closed in April 1919.

Recently, i met up with Mary-Ann Blair a relative of Dr Blair. Who left New Zealand to go on a journey to rediscover the past.  In her own words Mary-Ann took the time to record her journey.


Dr Mary Alice Blair, London-based World War 1 doctor, was regarded with admiration and wonder by children growing up on a remote farm in New Zealand, even though we never met her. She was my great aunt, the sister of my paternal grandfather, and over the years her possessions returned to New Zealand. Some, including her war medals, came to my father. In 1934 Mary had paid for my grandfather, her brother, to travel to London for successful ground-breaking surgery to restore his failing eyesight, but sadly he died of an unrelated cause the day before embarking to return home. She continued to support his widow and sons in New Zealand, and we have photographs of my father with her in London in 1945 after he was freed from years as a prisoner of war in Austria. Mary visited New Zealand in 1950 shortly before I was born. Her hard work and courage inspired my curiosity, and over the years I found out more about her times and her achievements.

Last year I was delighted to find out about the research of historian Jane Tolerton, a fellow New Zealander. It was she who told me of Alan Cumming’s enthusiasm and knowledge of Scottish Women’s Hospitals but until I met him I didn’t know that he was the man behind the extensive website. When my husband and I recently travelled to Europe with a plan to follow in some of her footsteps, our first stop was to meet him at the Mitchell Library in Glasgow. Alan was amazing: I expected a librarian, not a committed volunteer. He gave up a lot of his precious time to tell us more of the crucial significance of Serbia in the war and of the contribution made by Scottish Women’s doctors to the destroyed lives of civilians and soldiers before and after the mid -winter retreat through Albania’s high mountains. He introduced me to the very helpful staff of the Family History floor where he had arranged to have ready and waiting for me Mary’s personal file, with letters to the Scottish Women’s Hospitals administration describing her time in Salonika and Corsica, along with fascinating photos and an album just on Corsica. The staff were happy to speedily photocopy my selection of at least 50 pages of photographs, captions and correspondence, ready to pick up a few hours later. This was a special day.

After exploring Islay, Oban and other parts of western Scotland, then Malta, we arrived in Corsica. We had booked accommodation in Calvi, which did not seem to be far from Ajaccio until we got there and found how difficult it would be to travel between the two. However a day ferry trip was the solution though did not allow time to reach the outlying sites. It was great to arrive by water as Mary would have done 100 years ago. On our arrival Ajaccio’s peaceful ancient port was overshadowed by a monstrous cruise ship in the harbour- totally out of scale with 1915. I was struck by the challenges which the balmy 30 degree heat would have presented for the wartime medical women from London and Scotland. Place Miot proved to be a relatively new reclaimed park area on the beautiful seafront. But on the original seafront was what must have been the convent despite considerable recent modification. I will contact the nearby university to try and confirm this. The rather blurred photo from the water shows that this is the only two-storeyed building near Place Miot. Our final stop was in London where we found the Imperial War Museum very interesting, particularly its presentations on life in 1914 London and also on the retreat from Serbia. It has been an amazing journey and left lots of special memories, starting with the day in Glasgow.

Biographical Outline In 1880 Mary Alice Blair was born in Dunedin, New Zealand, the 6th in a family of 8 children, to William, a civil engineer, and Mary (nee Kennedy) who had arrived in 1863 from Islay and Oban respectively. In 1884 the family moved to Wellington, where William became Engineer in Chief and Under Secretary of the Public Works Department. He died in 1891. After leaving Wellington Girls’ College, in 1899 Mary entered Victoria College of the University of New Zealand in its foundation year and was immediately involved with the Students’ Society. In 1902 she was one of its first two BSc graduates, and the first woman. In 1907, after three years of study at the London School of Medicine for Women, she qualified as a doctor and established a career in obstetrics, gynaecology and paediatrics in London hospitals. War was declared and in August 1915 Mary joined Scottish Women’s Hospitals, one of the few avenues whereby women doctors could contribute. By the time she reached Salonika bound for Serbia, the Great Retreat was under way. France offered evacuation to Corsica, and she became a leading part of this, her ship with 300 sick refugees arriving at Ajaccio on Christmas Day. Here she was admired for her work establishing and running a hospital and separate fever hospital. Eager to be closer to the military action, she later accepted a contract to work as a Civilian Surgeon attached to the Women’s Medical Unit of the Royal Army Medical Corps and in September 1916 she left Corsica for Floriana Hospital, Malta. Submarine attacks soon threatened the evacuation of patients to Malta and in 1917 she was appointed to the British Salonika Force. Her hospital was mobilised in Malta and she arrived in Salonika in July. Later that year she was mentioned in despatches from the Commander-in-Chief, British Salonica Force for distinguished service. Mary continued there until the war ended. In 1919 she served with Eastern Command and by August was a Civilian Medical Practitioner in Queen Mary’s Army Auxiliary Corps at Isleworth Hospital, London. I know little of her post war career, other than that she continued to work, mostly in private practice, until her health deteriorated. Mary Alice Blair died aged 81 in 1962. It is important to remember her.

By Mary-Ann Blair.

Plans to Commemorate Elsie Inglis in Serbia


Exclusive: New plans to commemorate Great War heroine Elsie Inglis in Serbia

September 25, 2016

Campaigning historian Alan Cumming reveals plans to remember Scottish heroine Elsie Inglis, with eight memorials in Serbia.

Alan Cumming has brought home the extraordinary story of Elsie Inglis, the pioneering doctor who sacrificed everything to help the Serbian people in their darkest hours in WW1.

Elsie’s native Edinburgh has decided to name a street after, a fitting tribute for the woman whose death brought many thousands of people to the streets of the Scottish capital.


Б: Edinburgh already honours Elsie with five memorials, why do you think this street naming is also important?

Alan: History belongs to the people and its so important that in order to get the message out there, that as many different individuals, museums and governmental bodies play their part in whatever way they feel appropriate. Clearly having Edinburgh city’s involvement will help promote the story to a greater audience.

Alan was also excited to announce plans to commemorate Elsie in Serbia:

My plan is a simple one really. I have identified eight locations in Serbia where Elsie’s work or legacy has importance. The plan is to build fountains or a memorial in each of these places. Relatives of Elsie Inglis who have never been to Serbia before will accompany me next year to visit these memorials and take part in an opening ceremony in each town or city.

Velibor is on Alan's right

Velibor is on Alan’s right

My great friend Velibor Vidic from the Valjevo hospital archives is assisting with this venture to make it a success. Velibor is also working on various programmes in Serbia to commemorate Elsie’s story.

Alan: Of course on the day itself in Edinburgh we will have our own remembrance and celebration of Elsie’s life. I know a number of Serbs want to attend and its also important that France and Russia are represented. My very good friend Louise Millar who has really been like a mentor to me is also lending her support.

Б: What unique qualities did Elsie bring to the movement of Scottish women who served in WW1?

Alan: Elsie knew how to fight for something and remain within the law, in her struggles to become a Doctor and later on to serve in front line hospitals or indeed her battles for women’s suffrage, Elsie’s endless energy and drive conquered all obstacles. This lady had the heart of a lion but also the claws to match. She simply did not know the meaning of “No”.

During his investigations, Alan says he was amazed how frequently Elsie took very long, exhausting treks by steam train or ship. Between 1914 and 1917 when she died of cancer. Elsie surprisingly traveled to France (twice), Corsica, Greece, Serbia, Russia, Romania. She spent weeks at sea and those water were very dangerous places to be, filled with enemy U -boats and mines.

Alan: Elsie was the founder of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals and as well as four primary hospitals in Serbia, they also had hospital units in France working in front line hospitals. A hospital unit was also deployed in Corsica to aid with Serbian refugees at the end of the Serbia retreat. A large hospital was in use at Salonika that supported the Serbs push for home.

Two more hospitals were located on the Russian front and while the units did tend Russian and Romanian soldiers, both those units were there to support two Serbian divisions made from Austrian Slavs who had surrendered to the Russians. The unit was lead by Elsie at the request of the Serbian government.

Elsie’s refusal to abandon those Serb divisions at a time during the Russian revolution in 1917 demonstrated her devotion and love for the Serbian people. Those 13,000 men would have been slaughtered at the front but Elsie battled with the authorities and refused to return home unless the men were guaranteed a safe passage out. This happened but sadly a number of weeks later, in fact the day she returned to the port of Newcastle, she passed away.


Б: What does this all mean to yourself personally, after such a passionate campaign?

Alan: For me the research will go on as cataloguing the women for the Web site is something that’s very important to me. I will continue with the talks and presentations. But of course after next year some of the gloss will come off the paintwork. I understand Elsie’s love of the Serbian people and I despair at the world sometimes indifferent attitude to such a wonderful nation.

For me this story is a bridge between the people of Scotland and Serbia. In my many trips to Serbia its clear we have so much in common.


Hospices of Hope-Belgrade


In October, I am back in Serbia to not only help promote the story of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals but also to begin organizing plans for the centenary year of Elsie Inglis death in 2017.  Graeme Keith, who has accompanied me before, will again be on hand to film and produce photos of some of the scheduled  meetings etc. Thank you Graeme, a huge amount of this project would not have come to fruition  without your endeavours. Its not lost on me the amount of time and effort you have put in.

Recently, i was contacted by Hospices of Hope, a charity dedicated to improving the lives of the terminally ill in south-east Europe by offering specialist (palliative) care services and education in their country partners in Romania, Serbia and Moldova.

Belgrade is one of the only capitals in Europe that currently has no specialist in-patient hospice facility, resulting in needless suffering for those affected by a terminal illness such as cancer. UK charity, Hospices of Hope, the leading hospice development charity in the region, is working with its Serbian partner BELhospice to change this situation. A property has been secured that will be transformed into a 12 bed hospice with associated day-care and home-care facilities.

Since 2005 Hospices of Hope have been partnering BELhospice founded in Belgrade by eminent cancer specialist Dr Natasa Milicevic through a donation made by a London Trust which enabled the purchase of a small training centre in Belgrade for BELhospice together with a base for a home-care team and an outpatient clinic.

 While there are several palliative care units within State hospitals around Serbia, they are unable to provide multi-disciplinary holistic care. BELhospice hopes to change all that and become a future Centre of Excellence for the whole country.

We are now planning to visit the Hospice in Belgrade in October. Surprisingly i have been asked to help promote this fantastic venture. So please take a look at the links and read more on this vital facility.

It is because of the medical link between the work of the Scottish Women’s Hospital in the last century and the work of BELhospice in the 21st century that i feel its important for me to support such a project.   An event is planned at Warren House, home of Lady Paget who established the first field hospital in Serbia to raise funds for the first inpatient unit in Belgrade.  To find out more or support the event please click on the link :


The Elsie Inglis story in timeline by Alan Cumming

As part of school programmes to commemorate the works of Dr Elsie Inglis, I have been asked to prepare a timeline on the bullet points that follow Elsie’s life through her remarkable years.

Elsie Inglis spent much of her life utterly devoted to others. A leading light in the women’s suffrage movement, she was at the genesis of women working in Medicine in Scotland. Elsie was committed to improving the lives of the poor particularly in Edinburgh. Great efforts were made to provide medical care for many of the city’s women and children. And when ww1 broke out she once again stepped up to the plate. A founder of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals which provided all female hospital units that went on to support Britain’s allies on the Eastern and Western fronts. A pragmatic yet often unyielding individual, Elsie was an inspiring leader, and without question one of the key movers and shakers of the time. With a gentle hand and a sense of fair play she navigated her way through a brilliant career and an extraordinary life.

1864 – Elsie was born in the Himalayas of India. Her family were descendants of the Inglis of Inverness. Her father John Inglis went out to India to work for the East India Company and later served as a magistrate.

1876 – Family sailed to Tasmania, Australia. The family were now returning home to Scotland but brothers Hugh and Cecil were being drafted into a new life in Tasmania.

1878 – The remaining family sail for home via the Suez Canal, on the steamship the “Durham”.

1878 – Family have now moved into their new home at 70 Bruntsfield Place, Edinburgh. Elsie with her sister Eva, are attending school at Edinburgh’s Institution for Educating Young Ladies at 23 Charlotte Square.

1882-1883 – (aged 18) Elsie departs to Paris, France. She is enrolled in finishing school.

1885 – Harriet, Elsie’s mother dies of scarlet fever, aged 47. Elsie devotes her time to her father and running the house. The family are now living in an apartment at Melville St, Edinburgh.

1886 – Elsie announces to her father she intends to “go in for medicine”
In October she enrols in the newly formed Dr Sophia Jex-Blake’s Edinburgh’s School of Medicine for Women.

1889 – After a row between Dr Sophia Jex-Blake and her students, with Elsie effectively being the rebel leader, Elsie leaves the medical school.

1890 – Elsie’s radical plans for an alternative women’s medical school bear fruit and a new school is housed at 30 Chambers St, Edinburgh. Elsie also moves into politics and becomes honorary secretary of Edinburgh’s National Society for Women’s Suffrage.

1891 – Elsie continues her studies in Glasgow. She is living at a local YMCA hostel in the city.

1892 – Aged 27 passes her exams with flying colours. She is now Licentiate of Royal College of Physician and Surgeons, Edinburgh and Glasgow. Elsie moves to London as she is appointed Resident Medical Doctor in a new hospital for women on Euston Rd, London.

1893 – She heads to Dublin, Ireland to do three month of midwifery.

1894 – Elsie has returned to Edinburgh and begins with Dr Jessie MacGregor a practice at Walker St in the city. This was the year that would completely devastate Elsie. In March 1894 her father died, a huge blow to Elsie and she wrote “I simply cannot imagine life without him”.

1895 – 1912 – Elsie builds up her reputation as Edinburgh’s foremost female Doctor. Hospitals and Maternity facilities were developed for the city’s poor. In 1906 Elsie played a notable role in the establishment of the Scottish Women’s Suffrage Federation. Elsie also works tirelessly campaigning for the vote for women. She talked all over the UK, from the Shetlands to Cornwall.

1913 – Elsie travels to America to look at the role of women in medicine. The first signs of Elsie’s health taking a dip begin to show.

1914 – WW1 breaks out. Elsie inquires at the war office if women Doctors and surgeons are permitted to serve in front line hospitals. Elsie is told to “go home and sit still”. Elsie now forms the Scottish Women’s Hospitals. These were all female hospital units which supported the French, Russians and the Serbs.
In December a unit is dispatched to Royaumont in France. Elsie travels out to inspect the hospital.

1915 – Elsie again travels to Royaumont for an inspection. In May she has arrived in Serbia. She is Chief Medical officer of a unit supporting Serbia through the typhus epidemic. Stationed at Kragujevac, Elsie and her unit performed near miracles during what was a difficult period. Elsie also developed three other hospitals in Serbia at this time. During those awful days she was known as the Mother of the Nation. A monument is build at Mladenovac in her honour. In late 1915 Serbia is invaded again but this time a huge fresh fighting army has returned. Serbia is alone and when Belgrade is raised to the ground in October the great Serbia retreat begins. Elsie chooses to stay in Serbia and face the enemy. The unit is now pushed down to Krusevac. Elsie and her unit are now taking POW. Elsie, over the next three months fights for every point and detail as she makes a fight of being a captive.

1916 – Elsie and her unit are repatriated via Belgrade, Vienna, and Zurich before home.
Elsie who described herself as “sick at heart” due to the outcome of her beloved Serbs, enters into a programme of fund-raising for Serbia, she also visits Corsica where a unit is deployed to support Serbian civilians.
Elsie is awarded the Order of the White Eagle by the Crown Price of Serbia. (first woman to have this honour)

1917 – August, Elsie leads at large SWH unit to the Russian front to support two Serbian divisions made up of Austrian Slavs who had surrendered to the Russians and unable to make their way to Serbia. The unit was lead by Elsie at the request of the Serbian government. Elsie’s refusal to abandon those Serb divisions at a time during the Russian revolution in 1917 demonstrated her devotion and love for the Serbian people. Those 13,000 men would have been slaughtered at the front but Elsie battled with the authorities and refused to return home unless the men were guaranteed a safe passage out. This happened but sadly a number of weeks later, in fact the day she returned to the port of Newcastle, Elsie Inglis gave her last breath on the 26th of November 1917, and it was her dying wish that the Serbs should have their hospitals. SWH units remained with the Serbian soldiers in their push for home between 1916-1918. Elsie Inglis is buried in the Dean cemetery, Edinburgh.